Muscogee page
Based on
excellent version on the website of the
10,000 BCE - 7000 BCE Paleo-Indian culture of seminomadic hunter-foragers living in open countryside and in natural rock shelters (e.g. Russell Cave in Jackson County and the Stanfield-Worley bluff shelter in Colbert County).
7000 BCE - 1000 BCE Archaic Period of Native American hunter-gatherer culture as Indians build temporary dwellings, add shellfish to their diets, and fashion atlatls (spear throwers) to hunt small game.
2500 BCE - 100 BCE Gulf Formational Period of Indian culture with increasing sophistication in ceramic development with tempered pottery.
300 BCE - 1000 Woodland Period of permanent houses, embellished pottery, bows and arrows, and maize and squash cultivation.
700- 1300 Mississippian culture features ceremonial mounds (e.g. Moundville, in Hale County), ornate pottery, and sophisticated agriculture.
1492 Christopher Columbus, sailing from Spain in search of the Indies, discovers the Americas.
1519 Alonzo Alvarez de Piñeda of Spain explores Gulf of Mexico from Florida to Mexico, including Mobile Bay.
1528 .. 1536 Spaniard Pánfilo de Narváez fails in Florida Gulf Coast colonization attempt.
1539 .. 1541 Hernando de Soto explores Southeast, meeting Chief Tuskaloosa (Tascaluza) in Battle of Maubila (October 1540).
1559 .. 1561 Don Tristán de Luna fails to establish permanent Spanish colony on Alabama-Florida coast.
Ca. 1600 Beginning of the rise of the historic tribes of Alabama: Muskogean-speaking Indian groups, remnants of the Mississippian chiefdoms, coalesce into the Creek Confederacy. Similar developments take place among the other heirs to the Mississippian tradition, creating the Choctaw, Chickasaw, and Cherokee tribes.
1607 First permanent English colony in North America established at Jamestown, Virginia.
1620 Pilgrims establish Plymouth Colony.
1682 Robert Cavalier, Sieur de La Salle navigates the Mississippi River, claiming area of Louisiana in honor of Louis XIV, king of France.
1685 Henry Woodward of Carolina establishes trading and diplomatic relations between the Creek Indians and the English by visiting major Creek villages.
1702 Le Moyne brothers, Iberville and Bienville, establish French fort and settlement at Twenty-seven Mile Bluff; settlement and fort moved downriver to Mobile site, 1712.
1717 Fort Toulouse on the Coosa River constructed to trade with the Indians and offset influence of British; farthest eastward penetration of the French.
1720 French Louisiana capital moved from Mobile west to Biloxi; then to New Orleans (1722).
1721 Africane sails into Mobile harbor with cargo of over 100 slaves.
1724 French Code Noir extended from French West Indies to North American colonies, institutionalizing slavery in Mobile area.
1756.. 1763 Seven Years War (French and Indian War) won by Great Britain. France ceded territorial claims east of the Mississippi River to Britain and those west of the River (including New Orleans) to Spain; Great Britain returned war-captured Cuba to Spain for Florida, which was divided into West Florida (including Mobile) and East Florida (the peninsula).
1775.. 1783 American Revolution creates United States of America governed by the Articles of Confederation.
1780 Spanish capture Mobile during American Revolution and retain the West and East Floridas as part of war-ending treaty.
1787 United States Constitution written.
1790 Creek Indians, led by Alexander McGillivray, negotiate the Treaty of New York with the U.S. government. The treaty ceded Creek territory in Georgia to the new nation, and acknowledged Indian rights in western Georgia and Alabama.
1793 Eli Whitney invents cotton gin.
1797.. 1799 Andrew Ellicott's survey established U.S. claims for its southern boundary at the 31st parallel.
1798 Mississippi Territory organized from Georgia's western land claims, including Alabama
1802 Georgia formally cedes western claims for its southern boundary at the 31st parallel.
1803 Louisiana Purchase from France (which had secured it from Spain) gives U.S. immense new territory and port of New Orleans.
1803.. 1811 Federal Road conceived and built connecting Milledgeville, Georgia to Fort Stoddert, American outpost north of Mobile.
1805.. 1806 Indian cessions opened up to white settlement large portions of western and northern (Chickasaw and Cherokee) Alabama.
1810 West Florida, from Pearl River to the Mississippi, annexed by U.S. from Spain.
1811.. 1812 Schools established in Mobile (Washington Academy 1811) and Huntsville (Green Academy 1812).
1811.. 1816 Newspapers established in Mobile to the south (Sentinel 1811; Gazette 1812) and Huntsville to the north (Alabama Republican 1816).
1812.. 1815 War of 1812 between U.S. and Great Britain.
1813.. 1814 Creek Indian War: July 1813- Battle of Burnt Corn Creek; August 1813- Fort Mims Massacre; December 1813- Battle of Holy Ground; March 1814- Battle of Horseshoe Bend
April 1813 U.S. annexed West Florida, from the Pearl River to the Perdido River, from Spain; Spanish surrender Mobile to American forces.
August 1814 Treaty of Fort Jackson. Creek Indians forced to cede lands to U.S.) comprising nearly half of the state. U.S. represented by General Andrew Jackson.
September 1814 British attack on Fort Bowyer on Mobile Point fails, prompting them to abandon plans to capture Mobile and turn towards New Orleans.
February 1815 British forces take Fort Bowyer on return from defeat at New Orleans, then abandon upon learning that the war is over.
1817 Alabama territory created, with temporary capital at St. Stephens, when Mississippi becomes a state.
1818 The Alabama, the area's first steamboat, constructed in St. Stephens.
Cedar Creek Furnace, the state's first blast furnace and commerical pig-iron producer, established in (now) Franklin County.
1819 March 2, 1819 President Monroe signs the Alabama enabling act.
July 1819 Constitutional Convention meets in Huntsville. Constitution adopted with Cahaba settled as capital.
October 25 - December 17, 1819 General Assembly meets in Huntsville until the Cahaba capital is constructed.
December 14, 1819 Alabama enters Union as 22nd state.
1820 State population= 127,901.
1820 Federal Census: White population=85,461; African-American population=42,450.
Slave population=41,879; free black population=571.
Urban population=3,194; rural population=306,333.
November 6 - December 21, 1819 Cahaba hosts second session of General Assembly.
1825 French general and American Revolution-hero, the Marquis de Lafayette, toured Alabama at Governor Israel Picken's invitation.
1830 Tuscumbia Railway Company chartered by General Assembly; first two miles of track link Tuscumbia and Sheffield (1832).
State's population=309,527.
1830 Federal Census: White population=190,406; African-American population=119,121.
Slave population=117,549; free black population=1,572.
Urban population=3,194; rural population=306,333.
1830 Indian Removal Bill approved by U.S. Congress.
1831 University of Alabama opened doors to students (incorporated by General Assembly 1819).
1831 Nat Turner slave insurrection in Virginia.
1832 Bell Factory (Madison County), state's first textile mill, chartered by General Assembly.
1833 "Stars fell on Alabama" with spectacular meteor shower (November 13).
Daniel Pratt established cotton gin factory north of Montgomery; his company town, Prattville (founded 1839), became a manufacturing center in the antebellum South.
1835 Dr. James Marion Sims, "the Father of Modern Gynecology," established a medical practice in Mt. Meigs, then in nearby Montgomery (1840), before moving on to New York in 1853 to found the renowned Woman's Hospital.
1835.. 1836 Alabama gold rush, concentrated in east-central hill country.
1836 Texas War for Independence from Mexico.
1836-1837 Second Creek War (Seminole War). Battle of Hobdy's Bridge last Indian battle in Alabama (1837).
1840 State population=590,756.
1840 Federal Census: White population=335,185; African-American population=255,571.
Slave population=253,532; free black population=2,039.
Urban population=12,672; rural population=578,084.